In 2002, wind power in Sweden and Norway was less than 0,5 TWh, far behind Denmark’s 4.4 TWh. A year later, green certificates were introduced. A growing percentage of electricity was required to be new and green, paid for by electricity consumers. This created a steady income for wind power. The system was not perfect. But after a few years wind power took off. 1 TWh 2006. 7 TWh 2013, 18 TWh 2017 and 28 TWh 2020 in Sweden, and 10 in Norway. Wind now covers 20 % of electric comsumption. The certificates prices were first high, at about €30/MWh. Now they are close to zero. Certificates no longer needed. Wind power keeps growing fast; 49 TWh projected for Sweden 2024.
Data from bp statistical review of world energy Projection from https://svenskvindenergi.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/Q2-2021-Statistics-and-forecast-Svensk-Vindenergi-210701_FINAL.pdf
Contact details: Reinhold Pape